Stakeholder Management Tool Box: The IAP2 Public Participation Spectrum

IAP2 is an international association of members who seek to promote and improve the practice of public participation / public engagement throughout the world.

An important tool they have created for those engaging with the public is the Public Participation Spectrum. It was designed to assist with the selection of the level of participation that defines the public's role in any public participation process.

The Spectrum shows that differing levels of participation are legitimate and depend on the goals, time frames, resources, and levels of concern in the decision to be made.

Moving from least, to most impact on a a decision, the categories are:

  1. Inform

  2. Consult

  3. Involve

  4. Collaborate

  5. Empower

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